Asthma and atopy have a complex background that may result from the interaction of genes and the environment. Interleukin (IL)-10 is known to play various roles in immune-regulating and anti-inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of the IL-10 promoter polymorphisms on susceptibility to childhood asthma. We recruited 333 patients with atopic asthma, 55 with nonatopic asthma, and 248 normal controls. We performed a genetic association study of three genetic polymorphisms (IL-10 -1082A>G, IL-10 -819T>C, and IL-10 -592A>C) of the IL-10 promoter. There was no difference between atopic asthma, nonatopic asthma, and normal controls with respect to allele, genotype, or haplotype frequencies of these IL-10 polymorphisms. However, the -1082A>G polymorphism and ATA haplotype in the IL-10 promoter gene were associated with airway hyper responsiveness (AHR) and the -819T>C, -592A>C, and ATA and ACC haplotypes were also shown to be related to serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). Our results suggest that the polymorphisms within the IL-10 promoter may have a disease-modifying effect in the asthmatic airway.