The toxicity of polyaniline (PANI) nanomaterials with four different aspect ratios on human lung fibroblast cells was investigated by cell viability assay, cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis/necrosis measurement, and reactive oxygen species production. The toxicity increased with decreasing aspect ratio of PANI nanomaterials. In contrast, the highest aspect ratio PANI nanomaterials showed similar results with bulk PANI materials. The adverse effect of PANI nanomaterials was also concentration- and time-dependent. Low aspect ratio PANI nanomaterials induced more necrosis and more reactive oxygen species than others. These results provide new understanding of shape-dependent toxicity of nanomaterials.