Development and haematotoxicological evaluation of doped hydroxyapatite based multimodal nanocontrast agent for near-infrared, magnetic resonance and X-ray contrast imaging

Nanotoxicology. 2012 Sep;6(6):652-66. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2011.600839. Epub 2011 Jul 22.


Multimodal molecular imaging provides both anatomical and molecular information, aiding early stage detection and better treatment planning of diseased conditions. Here, we report development and nanotoxicity evaluation of a novel hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHAp) based multimodal contrast agent for combined near-infrared (NIR), MR and X-ray imaging. Under optimised wet-chemical conditions, we achieved simultaneous doping of nHAp (size ∼50 nm) with indocyanine green and Gd(3+) contributing to NIR contrast (∼750-850 nm), paramagnetic behaviour and X-ray absorption suitable for NIR, MR and X-ray contrast imaging, respectively. Haematocompatibility studies using stem cell viability, haemolysis, platelet activation, platelet aggregation and coagulation time analysis indicated excellent compatibility of doped nHAp (D-nHAp). Further, the immunogenic function studies using human lymphocytes (in vitro) showed that D-nHAp caused no adverse effects. Collectively, our studies suggest that D-nHAp with excellent biocompatibility and multifunctional properties is a promising nanocontrast agent for combined NIR, MR and X-ray imaging applications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult Stem Cells
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Contrast Media / chemistry
  • Contrast Media / pharmacology*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Durapatite / chemistry
  • Durapatite / pharmacology*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gadolinium / chemistry
  • Hemolysis / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Inflammation
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • Molecular Imaging / methods*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Platelet Activation / drug effects
  • Platelet Aggregation / drug effects
  • Radiography
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared


  • Contrast Media
  • Cytokines
  • Durapatite
  • Gadolinium