Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2012 Feb;87(1):194-208. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00192.x. Epub 2011 Jul 22.


Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach.

MeSH terms

  • Communicable Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Ecosystem*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Food Supply
  • Global Health*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Social Behavior