Plasma and tissue insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) as a prognostic marker for prostate cancer and anti-IGF-IR agents as novel therapeutic strategy for refractory cases: a review

Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Sep 15;344(1-2):1-24. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2011.07.002. Epub 2011 Jul 18.


Cancer database analysis indicates that prostate cancer is one of the most seen cancers in men meanwhile composing the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among developed countries. Current available therapies are surgery, radiotherapy and androgene ablation for prostate carcinoma. The response rate is as high nearly 90% however, most of these recur or become refractory and androgene independent (AI). Therefore recent studies intensified on molecular factors playing role on development of prostate carcinoma and novel treatment strategies targetting these factors and their receptors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its primary receptor insulin-like growth factor receptor-I (IGF-IR) are among these factors. Biologic functions and role in malign progression are primarily achieved via IGF-IR which is a type 2 tyrosine kinase receptor. IGF-IR plays an important role in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, transformation, apoptosis and cell motility. It also generates intensive proliferative signals leading to carcinogenesis in prostate tissue. So IGF-IR and its associated signalling system have provoked considerable interest over recent years as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. In this paper it is aimed to sum up the lately published literature searching the relation of IGF-IR and prostate cancer in terms of incidence, pathologic features, and prognosis. This is followed by a discussion of the different possible targets within the IGF-1R system, and drugs developed to interact at each target. A systems-based approach is then used to review the in vitro and in vivo data in the published literature of the following compounds targeting IGF-1R components using specific examples: growth hormone releasing hormone antagonists (e.g. JV-1-38), growth hormone receptor antagonists (e.g. pegvisomant), IGF-1R antibodies (e.g. CP-751,871, AVE1642/EM164, IMC-A12, SCH-717454, BIIB022, AMG 479, MK-0646/h7C10), and IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g. BMS-536942, BMS-554417, NVP-AEW541, NVP-ADW742, AG1024, potent quinolinyl-derived imidazo (1,5-a)pyrazine PQIP, picropodophyllin PPP, nordihydroguaiaretic acid Insm-18/NDGA). And the other end point is to yield an overview on the recent progress about usage of this receptor as a novel anticancer agent of targeted therapies in treatment of prostate carcinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Disease Progression
  • Gene Expression
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1 / blood*
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1 / genetics
  • Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Signal Transduction


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Receptors, Somatotropin
  • Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1