Purpose: We examined trends in pediatric hospitalization for pyelonephritis from 1985 to 2006 and identified factors associated with admission.
Materials and methods: We performed a population based analysis of hospital discharges using the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database to evaluate trends in California regarding pediatric hospitalizations for pyelonephritis from 1985 to 2006. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with admission for pyelonephritis.
Results: A total of 46,300 children were hospitalized for pyelonephritis in California from 1985 to 2006. The overall rate of hospitalization for pyelonephritis increased by greater than 80%, from 17 per 100,000 children in the California population in 1985 to 31 per 100,000 in 2005. This change was primarily due to the nearly ninefold increase in pyelonephritis hospitalizations observed in children younger than 1 year, from 28 per 100,000 in 1985 to 238 per 100,000 in 2005. Among children younger than 1 year males without private insurance and of nonwhite race had increased odds of hospitalization, while females with private insurance and of Asian race had increased odds of hospitalization, compared with nonprivate insurance and white race, respectively.
Conclusions: A significant increase in hospital admissions for pyelonephritis, primarily in children younger than 1 year, occurred in California between 1985 and 2006. Further studies are needed to establish the cause of this striking increase and to determine why certain pediatric populations are at increased risk for hospitalization.
Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.