Low relative abundances of the mucolytic bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of children with autism

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Sep;77(18):6718-21. doi: 10.1128/AEM.05212-11. Epub 2011 Jul 22.


Gastrointestinal disturbance is frequently reported for individuals with autism. We used quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantify fecal bacteria that could influence gastrointestinal health in children with and without autism. Lower relative abundances of Bifidobacteria species and the mucolytic bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila were found in children with autism, the latter suggesting mucus barrier changes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autistic Disorder / complications*
  • Bacterial Load
  • Bifidobacterium / genetics
  • Bifidobacterium / isolation & purification*
  • Child
  • Dyspepsia / epidemiology*
  • Dyspepsia / microbiology
  • Feces / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Mucus / metabolism
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Verrucomicrobia / genetics
  • Verrucomicrobia / isolation & purification*