Checking semiparametric transformation models with censored data

Biostatistics. 2012 Jan;13(1):18-31. doi: 10.1093/biostatistics/kxr017. Epub 2011 Jul 23.


Semiparametric transformation models provide a very general framework for studying the effects of (possibly time-dependent) covariates on survival time and recurrent event times. Assessing the adequacy of these models is an important task because model misspecification affects the validity of inference and the accuracy of prediction. In this paper, we introduce appropriate time-dependent residuals for these models and consider the cumulative sums of the residuals. Under the assumed model, the cumulative sum processes converge weakly to zero-mean Gaussian processes whose distributions can be approximated through Monte Carlo simulation. These results enable one to assess, both graphically and numerically, how unusual the observed residual patterns are in reference to their null distributions. The residual patterns can also be used to determine the nature of model misspecification. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well in practical situations. Three medical studies are provided for illustrations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biostatistics
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Colonic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Colonic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colonic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Granulomatous Disease, Chronic / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Survival Analysis


  • Interferon-gamma