Rationale: Kidneys are dynamic organs and represent one of the major systems maintaining the body homeostasis; they are affected by many chemicals and drugs. Grape seed extract (GSE) has been targeted to prevent drug-induced renal toxicity.
Objectives: This study investigates the possible renoprotective effect of GSE against oxidative stress, renal impairment, and hypercholesterolemia (HC) induced by gentamicin (GM) and cholesterol-enriched diet. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (160 ± 10 g) were divided into seven groups: (1) served as control, (2) GSE, (3) GM, (4) GSE + GM, (5) hypercholesterolemic (HC) group, (6) GM + HC group, and (7) GM + HC + GSE. Kidney functions, inflammatory mediators, cytokines, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and oxidative and antioxidative stress parameters were assessed in all groups.
Main findings: GM induced renal dysfunction, which was exacerbated by the presence of HC as confirmed by laboratory determinations. Administration of GSE attenuated the renal toxicity evidenced in significant reduction in elevated kidney function, inflammatory cytokines as well as lipid profile, NO, cGMP, enzymatic, and nonenzymatic antioxidants.
Conclusion: Administration of GSE simultaneously with GM attenuated oxidative stress, diminished renal toxicity, and improved lipid profile induced by GM and HC.