Unraveling the ties between celiac disease and intestinal microbiota

Int Rev Immunol. 2011 Aug;30(4):207-18. doi: 10.3109/08830185.2011.599084.


Celiac disease is a multifactorial disorder that involves interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Gluten proteins are responsible for the symptoms of celiac disease, but other environmental factors that influence the intestinal ecosystem, including the milk-feeding type and gastrointestinal infections, may also play a role. Moreover, intestinal dysbiosis, characterized by increased Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bifidobacteria, has been detected in celiac disease patients. This review summarizes current knowledge of the associations between the intestinal microbiota and celiac disease and its possible modes of action in pathogenesis. Deeper understanding of these interactions can help redefine how this disorder is investigated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibiosis / immunology
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy
  • Celiac Disease / immunology
  • Celiac Disease / microbiology*
  • Diet Therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / immunology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / complications
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / diet therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Inflammation / microbiology
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Intestines / microbiology*
  • Metagenome* / immunology
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • Symbiosis / immunology
  • Virulence