Quantification of codon selection for comparative bacterial genomics

BMC Genomics. 2011 Jul 25;12:374. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-374.


Background: Statistics measuring codon selection seek to compare genes by their sensitivity to selection for translational efficiency, but existing statistics lack a model for testing the significance of differences between genes. Here, we introduce a new statistic for measuring codon selection, the Adaptive Codon Enrichment (ACE).

Results: This statistic represents codon usage bias in terms of a probabilistic distribution, quantifying the extent that preferred codons are over-represented in the gene of interest relative to the mean and variance that would result from stochastic sampling of codons. Expected codon frequencies are derived from the observed codon usage frequencies of a broad set of genes, such that they are likely to reflect nonselective, genome wide influences on codon usage (e.g. mutational biases). The relative adaptiveness of synonymous codons is deduced from the frequency of codon usage in a pre-selected set of genes relative to the expected frequency. The ACE can predict both transcript abundance during rapid growth and the rate of synonymous substitutions, with accuracy comparable to or greater than existing metrics. We further examine how the composition of reference gene sets affects the accuracy of the statistic, and suggest methods for selecting appropriate reference sets for any genome, including bacteriophages. Finally, we demonstrate that the ACE may naturally be extended to quantify the genome-wide influence of codon selection in a manner that is sensitive to a large fraction of codons in the genome. This reveals substantial variation among genomes, correlated with the tRNA gene number, even among groups of bacteria where previously proposed whole-genome measures show little variation.

Conclusions: The statistical framework of the ACE allows rigorous comparison of the level of codon selection acting on genes, both within a genome and between genomes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Bacteria / genetics*
  • Codon / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genes, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genomics*
  • Models, Genetic
  • Open Reading Frames / genetics
  • Probability
  • Stochastic Processes


  • Codon