In this paper we review neurotoxic disorders appearing in patients poisoned with organophosphorus pesticides. These compounds cause four important neurotoxic effects in humans: the cholinergic syndrome, the intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). Compared to the cholinergic syndrome, that causes millions of cases of poisoning each year, other disorders involve much smaller numbers of patients. The review is focused on the neurotoxic effects appearing after acute and chronic exposure to organophosphates with emphasis on clinical presentation, pathogenesis, molecular mechanisms, and possibilities for prevention/therapy.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.