Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among schoolchildren in remote areas devoid of sanitation in northwestern Swaziland, Southern Africa

Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64(4):322-6.


A parasitological survey of Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary schoolchildren in the remote areas of Hhohho and Manzini Provinces in northwestern Swaziland was undertaken. Presence of infection in subjects was confirmed on detection of S. haematobium ova in urine or the presence of hematuria. The intensity of the infection was estimated by calculating the total number of S. haematobium ova present in a 10-ml urine specimen and was expressed in terms of geometric mean intensity (GMI). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection in these populations was 5.3% (21/395) with a GMI of 46.5. Boys had higher prevalence (7.1%, 13/182) and GMI (50.4) than girls (3.8%, 8/213; 40.0) did (P>0.05). Geographically, the prevalence in Manzini schoolchildren (14.6%, 12/82) was significantly higher than that in Hhohho schoolchildren (2.9%, 9/313; P<0.001); however, Hhohho schoolchildren had a higher GMI (70.2) than that observed in Manzini schoolchildren (21.9). Children from schools located in Lowveld had a significantly higher prevalence (11.4%, 19/166) than that in children from schools located in Highveld (0.6%, 1/162) (P<0.0001).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Child
  • Eswatini / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Geography
  • Hematuria / diagnosis
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Hematuria / parasitology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ovum
  • Prevalence
  • Rural Population
  • Schistosoma haematobium / pathogenicity*
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / diagnosis
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / epidemiology*
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / parasitology
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / urine
  • Schools / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Distribution
  • Urine / parasitology*