While once thought to be relatively rare in developed nations, the prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis appears to be increasing, and a number of factors may be contributing to this increase. Many theories are plausible and such theories include the increasing childhood obesity epidemic, a changing sex predilection, climate change, alterations in dietary habits and improving diagnostic modalities. Yet, unlike adult patients, rigorous epidemiologic studies do not exist in pediatric populations. Thus, in the setting of an increasing prevalence of childhood stone disease, improved research is critical to the development of uniform strategies for pediatric urolithiasis management.
Keywords: epidemiology; kidney calculi; pediatric; urolithiasis.