Dyslipidemia is a common finding in patients with thyroid disease, explained by the adverse effects of thyroid hormones in almost all steps of lipid metabolism. Not only overt but also subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, through different mechanisms, are associated with lipid alterations, mainly concerning total and LDL cholesterol and less often HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B. In addition to quantitative, qualitative alterations of lipids have been also reported, including atherogenic and oxidized LDL and HDL particles. In thyroid disease, dyslipidemia coexists with various metabolic abnormalities and induce insulin resistance and oxidative stress via a vice-vicious cycle. The above associations in combination with the thyroid hormone induced hemodynamic alterations, might explain the increased risk of coronary artery disease, cerebral ischemia risk, and angina pectoris in older, and possibly ischemic stroke in younger patients with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism.