Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is the primary therapy for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). Few reports describe long-term outcomes. In this study, a retrospective single-institution review was performed of patients who underwent BAV for congenital AS. The following end points were evaluated: moderate or severe aortic insufficiency (AI) by echocardiography, aortic valve replacement, repeat BAV, surgical aortic valvotomy, and transplantation or death. From 1985 to 2009, 272 patients who underwent BAV at ages 1 day to 30.5 years were followed for 5.8 ± 6.7 years. Transplantation or death occurred in 24 patients (9%) and was associated with depressed baseline left ventricular shortening fraction (LVSF) (p = 0.04). Aortic valve replacement occurred in 42 patients (15%) at a median of 3.5 years (interquartile range 75 days to 5.9 years) after BAV and was associated with post-BAV gradient ≥25 mm Hg (p = 0.02), the presence of post-BAV AI (p = 0.03), and below-average baseline LVSF (p = 0.04). AI was found in 83 patients (31%) at a median of 4.8 years (interquartile range 1.4 to 8.7) and was inversely related to post-BAV gradient ≥25 mm Hg (p <0.04). AI was associated with depressed baseline LVSF (p = 0.02). Repeat valvuloplasty (balloon or surgical) occurred in 37 patients (15%) at a median of 0.51 years (interquartile range 0.10 to 5.15) and was associated with neonatal BAV (p <0.01), post-BAV gradient ≥25 mm Hg (p = 0.03), and depressed baseline LVSF (p = 0.05). In conclusion, BAV confers long-term benefits to most patients with congenital AS. Neonates, patients with post-BAV gradients ≥25 mm Hg, and patients with lower baseline LVSF experienced worse outcomes.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.