Rescuing A Patient In Deteriorating Situations (RAPIDS): an evaluation tool for assessing simulation performance on clinical deterioration

Resuscitation. 2011 Nov;82(11):1434-9. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.06.008. Epub 2011 Jul 26.


Aim: This article is a report of a study which developed and tested the validity and reliability of the RAPIDS-Tool to measure student nurses' simulation performance in assessing, managing and reporting of clinical deterioration.

Background: The importance for nurses to recognize and respond to deteriorating patients has led educators to advocate for increasing use of simulation for developing this competency. However, there is a lack of evaluation tools to objectively evaluate nurses' simulation performance on clinical deterioration.

Method: The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1 began with development of items for the RAPIDS-Tool from the basis of a literature review and a panel of national experts' consensus. Phase 2 established the content validity of the RAPIDS-Tool by a panel of international experts and by undertaking a pilot test. Phase 3 involved testing the psychometric properties of the RAPIDS-Tool, on 30 video-recorded simulation performances, for construct validity, inter-rater reliability, and correlation between two scoring systems.

Results: The process of development and validation produced a 42-item RAPIDS-Tool. Significant differences (t=15.48, p<0.001) in performance scores among participants with different levels of training supported the construct validity. The RAPIDS-Tool demonstrated a high inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99) among the three raters and a high correlation between the global rating and checklist scores (r=0.94, p<0.001).

Conclusion: The RAPIDS-Tool provides a valid and reliable tool to evaluate nurses' simulation performances in clinical deterioration. This may prove useful for future studies that investigate outcomes of simulation training.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence*
  • Critical Illness*
  • Education, Nursing*
  • Emergency Nursing / education*
  • Emergency Nursing / standards*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nursing Diagnosis*
  • Patient Simulation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult