Kidney and heart interactions during cardiorenal syndrome: a molecular and clinical pathogenic framework

Future Cardiol. 2011 Jul;7(4):485-97. doi: 10.2217/fca.11.24.


The heart and kidney are physiologically interconnected. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a pathological disorder where acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce dysfunction in the other one. Although classical studies have proposed a role for hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, CRS should be considered as a complex molecular interplay of neurohumoral pathway activation including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin aldosterone axis, the endothelin system and the arginine vasopressin system. This activation may induce vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, accelerated atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy and both myocardial and intrarenal fibrosis with progression of CRS treatment. More recently, epigenetics has opened new pathogenic molecular routes for CRS. This will lead to a more rapid development of novel, safe and effective clinical therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / genetics*
  • Cardio-Renal Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Heart / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiopathology*