The association between fluoride and risk for osteosarcoma is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if bone fluoride levels are higher in individuals with osteosarcoma. Incident cases of osteosarcoma (N = 137) and tumor controls (N = 51) were identified by orthopedic physicians, and segments of tumor-adjacent bone and iliac crest bone were analyzed for fluoride content. Logistic regression adjusted for age and sex and potential confounders of osteosarcoma was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was no significant difference in bone fluoride levels between cases and controls. The OR adjusted for age, gender, and a history of broken bones was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.56-3.15). No significant association between bone fluoride levels and osteosarcoma risk was detected in our case-control study, based on controls with other tumor diagnoses.