Objective: Myeloid lineage cells (MLCs) such as macrophages are known to play a key role in postischemic neovascularization. However, the role of MLC-derived reactive oxygen species in this process and their specific chemical identity remain unknown.
Methods and results: Transgenic mice with MLC-specific overexpression of catalase (Tg(Cat-MLC) mice) were created on a C57BL/6 background. Macrophage catalase activity was increased 3.4-fold compared with wild-type mice. After femoral artery ligation, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed impaired perfusion recovery in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice. This was associated with fewer collateral vessels, as assessed by microcomputed tomography angiography, and decreased capillary density. Impaired functional recovery of the ischemic limb was also evidenced by a 50% reduction in spontaneous running activity. The deficient neovascularization was associated with a blunted inflammatory response, characterized by decreased macrophage infiltration of ischemic tissues, and lower mRNA levels of inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, osteopontin, and matrix mettaloproteinase-9. In vitro macrophage migration was impaired in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice, suggesting a role for H(2)O(2) in regulating the ability of macrophages to infiltrate ischemic tissues.
Conclusions: MLC-derived H(2)O(2) plays a key role in promoting neovascularization in response to ischemia and is a necessary factor for the development of ischemia-induced inflammation.