Implementing cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

Am J Cardiol. 2011 Aug 2;108(3 Suppl):42B-51B. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.03.015.


The role of cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with diabetes mellitus is significant as several factors have been found to promote accelerated atherosclerosis in persons with diabetes including hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis, increased platelet aggregation, plaque instability, dysfunctional arterial remodeling, and fibrotic and calcified coronary arteries. Recent attention has focused on identifying a cardiovascular biomarker that would propose a better noninvasive way to detect or visualize subclinical cardiovascular disease and prevent cardiovascular events. This article reviews the use of commonly used cardiovascular risk assessment tools and emerging biomarkers including coronary artery calcium scanning, metabolomics, genomics, and the role of optimal revascularization and risk reduction strategies and their impact on reducing risk in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aspirin / therapeutic use
  • Atherosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Calcium / analysis
  • Coronary Vessels / chemistry
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / metabolism
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / prevention & control
  • Disease Progression
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Metabolomics
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / metabolism
  • Myocardial Ischemia / therapy
  • Myocardial Revascularization
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Reduction Behavior


  • Biomarkers
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Aspirin
  • Calcium