Cancer of the oral cavity accounts for almost 3% of cancer cases in the world. The incidence varies widely reflecting geographic differences in exposure to risk factors. The recent rise in younger age groups and females seen in many countries is of particular concern. Treatment and management of complications, locoregional recurrence and further primary tumors result in high morbidity and mortality especially when the disease is advanced stage at initial diagnosis. Progress in cancer research has provided abundant new knowledge about cellular processes and molecular biology underlying oral carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The present review attempts to summarize the current most widely-used research approaches and their application in the prevention, diagnosis, effective treatment, and improved outcome of oral cancer.
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