Since its original discovery in yeast, the Mediator complex has been identified in a wide range of organisms across the eukaryotic kingdom. Despite being experimentally purified from a number of fungal and metazoan organisms, it was not until 2007, thirteen years after its initial discovery, that the Mediator complex was successfully isolated from plants. With a number of papers now beginning to emerge on the plant Mediator complex, this review aims to provide an overview of the diverse functions that have been identified for individual plant Mediator subunits. In addition to demonstrating roles in plant development, flowering, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance; recent findings have revealed novel functions for plant Mediator subunits, including mRNA, miRNA and rRNA processing, as well as controlling DNA and protein stability. These diverse activities have expanded the known functions of the Mediator complex and demonstrate a variety of new insights that have been gained from investigations into the plant Mediator complex. Future directions for research into this multi-functional protein complex will be discussed.
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