Identification of a new cartilage-specific S100-like protein up-regulated during endo/perichondral mineralization in gilthead seabream

Gene Expr Patterns. 2011 Oct;11(7):448-55. doi: 10.1016/j.gep.2011.07.003. Epub 2011 Jul 22.


Calcium ions and calcium-binding proteins play a major role in many cellular processes, in particular skeletogenesis and bone formation. We report here the discovery of a novel S100 protein in fish and the analysis of its gene expression patterns. A 648-bp full-length cDNA encoding an 86-amino acid S100-like calcium-binding protein was identified through the subtractive hybridization of a gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) cDNA library constructed to identify genes associated with in vitro mineralization. Deduced protein lacks an identifiable signal peptide and exhibits two EF-hand motifs characteristic of S100 proteins. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses of S100 sequences suggested that gilthead seabream protein represents a novel and fish-specific member of the S100 protein family. Expression of S100-like gene was up-regulated during the in vitro mineralization of bone-derived cell lines and during seabream development, from larvae throughout adulthood, reflecting skeletogenesis. Restriction of S100-like gene expression to chondrocytes of cartilaginous tissues undergoing endo/perichondral mineralization in juvenile fish further confirmed the mineralogenic role of the protein in fish and emphasized the potential of S100-like as a marker of mineralizing cartilage in developing fish.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Calcification, Physiologic / genetics*
  • Cartilage / growth & development*
  • Cartilage / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Chondrocytes / cytology
  • Chondrocytes / metabolism
  • Computational Biology
  • EF Hand Motifs / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Osteogenesis / genetics*
  • Phylogeny
  • S100 Proteins / genetics*
  • S100 Proteins / metabolism
  • Sea Bream / genetics
  • Sea Bream / growth & development*


  • S100 Proteins