Manipulation of gene function in Xenopus laevis

Methods Mol Biol. 2011:770:55-75. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-210-6_3.


Xenopus laevis embryos are particularly well suited to address questions requiring either knockdown or overexpression of genes in a tissue-specific fashion during vertebrate embryonic development. These manipulations are achieved by targeted injection of either antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or synthetic mRNAs, respectively, into the early embryo. Herein we offer detailed protocols describing how to design and perform these experiments successfully, as well as a brief discussion of considerations for performing a microarray analysis in this organism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Culture Techniques
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / cytology
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / physiology
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Injections
  • Male
  • Microinjections
  • Morpholines / metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / instrumentation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics
  • RNA Caps / genetics
  • Testis / metabolism
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology
  • Xenopus laevis / genetics*
  • Xenopus laevis / physiology


  • Morpholines
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • RNA Caps