Current adjuvants and new perspectives in vaccine formulation

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 Jul;10(7):1053-61. doi: 10.1586/erv.11.48.


Given the important role of adjuvants in prophylactic vaccines, identification and development of new adjuvants with enhanced efficacy and safety is necessary. The use of adjuvants with immunopotentiating properties that can direct the immune responses to humoral or cell-mediated immunity and can induce T-cell responses has made it possible to design more protective vaccines. Although current regulations focus on traditional adjuvants, notably aluminum and calcium salts, advances have been made in regulatory considerations. The regulatory agencies for the evaluation of medicinal products are actively drafting guidance on requirements for the evaluation of new adjuvants. This article briefly summarizes the most widely studied adjuvants in vaccination, including those licensed for human vaccines and the regulatory aspects relevant to adjuvant quality at development stages.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Drug Compounding
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / drug effects*
  • Immunity, Cellular / immunology
  • Immunity, Humoral / drug effects
  • Immunity, Humoral / physiology
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccination*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Vaccines