The typical appearance of cardiac amyloidosis using standard echocardiographic techniques is usually a late finding only in patients with relatively advanced stages of the disease. Early noninvasive identification of cardiac amyloidosis is of growing clinical importance. Newer echocardiographic techniques, including tissue Doppler imaging and deformation imaging (strain rate imaging and 2-dimensional speckle tracking), are powerful tools for quantifying regional myocardial motion and deformation. Using these advanced techniques, early functional impairment in cardiac amyloidosis may be detectable when the results of standard echocardiography are still normal or inconclusive. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the different echocardiographic approaches for the assessment of systolic and diastolic function in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. Special attention is paid to regional myocardial function assessed by tissue Doppler imaging, strain rate imaging, and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.