After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. List the risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia. 2. Distinguish between physiologic jaundice and pathologic jaundice of the newborn. 3. Recognize the clinical manifestations of acute bilirubin encephalopathy and the permanent clinical sequelae of kernicterus.4. Describe the evaluation of hyperbilirubinemia from birth through 3 months of age. 5. Manage neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, including referral to the neonatal intensive care unit for exchange transfusion.