Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

GMS Health Technol Assess. 2011;7:Doc04. doi: 10.3205/hta000095. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Abstract
in En , German

Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles.

Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated.

Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults.

Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective.

Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption.

Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy.

Hintergrund: Trotz verschiedenster Maßnahmen zur Prävention des riskanten Alkoholkonsums von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen ist ein Anstieg der Alkoholvergiftungen von Zehn- bis unter 20-Jährigen zu beobachten.

Fragestellungen: Es wird eine Übersicht der aktuellen Literatur sowie des deutschen föderalen Präventionssystems zu verhältnis- und verhaltenspräventiven Maßnahmen hinsichtlich riskanter Alkoholkonsummuster bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen, Identifikation effektiver Komponenten sowie die Beurteilung aktueller Präventionsprogramme hinsichtlich ihrer Wirksamkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit erstellt.

Methodik: Es erfolgt eine systematische Literaturrecherche in 34 Datenbanken mit vier Schlagwortblöcken (Alkohol; Prävention; Behandlung; Kinder, Jugendliche, junge Erwachsene).

Ergebnisse: Es werden 401 Studien gefunden und 59 für den HTA-Bericht (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) ausgewählt. Die Mehrzahl der Studien stammt aus den USA, neun Studien sind aus Deutschland. Wirksam sind ein Familieninterventionsprogramm, personalisierte computergestützte Interventionen an Schulen, Colleges und Universitäten, kurze motivierende Interventionen und Elemente der Verhältnisprävention, z. B. die Erhöhung von Alkoholpreisen und Steuern.

Diskussion: Unter den 59 Studien sind drei Metaanalysen, 15 Reviews und 17 randomisierte kontrollierte Studien (RCT) und 18 Kohortenstudien. Trotz dieser insgesamt hohen Qualität der Studienanlage, leiden zahlreiche Studien unter methodischen Mängeln (fehlende Randomisierungen, fehlende oder kurze Nachkontrollen, unklar definierte Messparameter). Die Übertragbarkeit US-amerikanischer Ergebnisse auf Deutschland ist problematisch. Nur wenige Maßnahmen erzielen dauerhafte Reduktionen der Alkoholkonsumhäufigkeit oder -menge.

Schlussfolgerung: Der HTA-Bericht zeigt die Notwendigkeit der Entwicklung von spezifischen und zielgruppenorientierten Präventionsmaßnahmen für den deutschen Kontext. Dazu gehören die verbindliche Definition von Zielgrößen (Reduktion des Konsums, Änderung des Verhaltens) sowie eine verbindliche Definition und empirische Bestimmung riskanten Alkoholkonsums. Vor der Einführung von Präventionsmaßnahmen sollte deren Wirksamkeit eindeutig belegt sein. Gegenwärtig sind Präventionsmaßnahmen zur Reduktion oder Verhinderung von riskantem Alkoholkonsum in Deutschland nicht ausreichend auf ihre nachhaltige Wirksamkeit hin evaluiert.

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