Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in blood pressure and the pulse rate of patients with controlled hypertension having dental extraction under local anaesthesia utilizing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline, and to evaluate whether these changes in blood pressure were are attributable to addition of adrenaline.
Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 33 consecutive hypertensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba, Lagos, from December 2004 to August 2005 for intra-alveolar tooth extraction. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups according to the type of anaesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under 2% lignocaine with 1:80 000 adrenaline while group B had tooth extraction done under 2% lignocaine without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine). One tooth was extracted from each patient. Blood pressure and pulse rate measurements were recorded in the waiting room before surgery, in the surgery after local anaesthetic injection, during tooth extraction and 15 minutes after tooth extraction.
Results: The sample consisted of 20 females and 13 males age range 24 to 75 years (mean +/- SD = 50.1 +/- 11.7 years). There was no statistically significant difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate in the two groups after administration of local anaesthesia. However the highest alteration in parameters was observed during tooth extraction in the two groups.
Conclusion: The haemodynamic changes induced by injecting 2% lignocaine with adrenaline in patients with controlled hypertension during tooth extraction is within normal range and is not different from that induced by 2% lignocaine without adrenaline. We consider it essential that all precautions to prevent inadvertent intravascular injection be undertaken by the care provider.