Background: Increased level of serum S100B can serve as a marker of metastatic spread in patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). In patients with elevated S100 B and/or clinical signs of disease progression PET-CT scan is a valuable tool for discovering metastases and planning treatment.The aims of this study were to determine whether regular measurements of serum S100B are a useful tool for discovering patients with CM metastases and to evaluate the diagnostic value of PET-CT during the follow-up.
Methods: From September 2007 to February 2010, 115 CM patients included in regular follow up at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana were appointed to PET-CT. There were 82 (71.3%) patients with clinical signs of disease progression and 33 (28.7%) asymptomatic patients with two subsequent elevated values of S100B. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of S100B and PET-CT were calculated using standard procedures.
Results: Disease progression was confirmed in 81.7% of patients (in 86.5% of patients with clinical signs of disease progression and in 69.7% of asymptomatic patients with elevated S100B). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of S100B was 33.8%, 90.9%, 96.0% and 17.5% in patients with clinical signs of disease progression. In 20.0% of patients increased serum S100B was the only sign of disease progression. Sensitivity and PPV of S100 in this group of patients were 100.0% and 69.7%.With PET-CT disease progression was diagnosed in 84.2% of symptomatic patients and in 72.7% of asymptomatic patients with elevated S100B. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PET-CT for symptomatic patients was 98.5%, 90.9%, 98.5% and 90.9% and 100%, 90.0%, 95.8% and 100% for asymptomatic patients with elevated S100.
Conclusions: Measurements of serum S100B during regular follow-up of patients with CM are a useful tool for discovering disease progression in asymptomatic patients. The value of its use increases if measurements are followed by extended whole body PET-CT.