Background: KCNQ1 gene encodes the delayed rectifier K(+) channel in cardiac muscle, and its mutations cause long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1). Especially exercise-related cardiac events predominate in LQT1. We previously reported that a KCNQ1 splicing mutation displays LQT1 phenotypes.
Methods and results: We identified novel mutation at the third base of intron 7 (IVS7 +3A>G) in exercise-induced LQT1 patients. Minigene assay in COS7 cells and RT-PCR analysis of patients' lymphocytes demonstrated the presence of exon 7-deficient mRNA in IVS7 +3A>G, as well as c.1032G>A, but not in c.1022C>T. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that both IVS7 +3A>G and c.1032G>A carrier expressed significant amounts of exon-skipping mRNAs (18.8% and 44.8% of total KCNQ1 mRNA). Current recordings from Xenopus oocytes injected cRNA by simulating its ratios of exon skipping displayed a significant reduction in currents to 64.8 ± 4.5% for IVS7 +3A>G and to 41.4 ± 9.5% for c.1032G>A carrier, respectively, compared to the condition without splicing error. Computer simulation incorporating these quantitative results revealed the pronounced QT prolongation under beta-adrenergic stimulation in IVS7 +3A>G carrier model.
Conclusion: Here we report a novel splicing mutation IVS7 +3A>G, identified in a family with mild form LQT1 phenotypes, and examined functional outcome in comparison with three other variants around the exon 7-intron 7 junction. In addition to c.1032G>A mutation, IVS7 +3A>G generates exon-skipping mRNAs, and thereby causing LQT1 phenotype. The severity of clinical phenotypes appeared to differ between the two splicing-related mutations and to result from the amount of resultant mRNAs and their functional consequences.
2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.