This paper examines the associations between male migration and mobility with HIV among married couples in India. Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household survey conducted across all 29 states of India from 2005 to 2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) included a subsample of 27,771 married couples who were tested for HIV as a part of their participation. Both bi-variate and multi-variate analyses were conducted. About 0.5% of the total married couples in the current study included an HIV-infected partner; 0.11% were HIV concordant and 0.38% were HIV serodiscordant couples. Adjusted logistic regression analyses demonstrated that HIV infection in couples (seroconcordant or serodiscordant) was significantly more likely among those couples where the man was migrant but not mobile and those couples where the man was migrant as well as mobile, relative to those couples where the man was neither migrant nor mobile. Male migration increases the risk for HIV among married couples in India, largely in the form of serodiscordance in which men are HIV infected. These findings document the need for not only primary prevention efforts to reduce HIV acquisition among migrant male workers, particularly more mobile migrants, but also efforts are needed to reduce subsequent transmission to their wives.