Aims/hypothesis: The results of several studies have suggested a potential positive association between use of antidepressant medication (ADM) and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined this association in three cohorts of US adults.
Methods: We followed 29,776 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1990-2006), 61,791 women in the Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I, 1996-2008) and 76,868 women in NHS II (1993-2005), who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. The mean baseline ages for participants from the HPFS and NHS I and II were 56.4, 61.3 and 38.1 years, respectively. ADM use and other covariates were assessed at baseline and updated every 2 years. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used, and HRs were pooled together across the three cohorts.
Results: During 1,644,679 person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,641 new cases of type 2 diabetes. ADM use was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in all three cohorts in age-adjusted models (pooled HR 1.68 [95% CI 1.27, 2.23]). The association was attenuated after adjustment for diabetes risk factors and histories of high cholesterol and hypertension (1.30 [1.14, 1.49]), and further attenuated by controlling for updated BMI (1.17 [1.09, 1.25]). Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants (mainly tricyclic antidepressants) were both associated with an elevated risk of diabetes, with pooled multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.10 (1.00, 1.22) and 1.26 (1.11, 1.42), respectively.
Conclusions/interpretation: The results suggest that ADM users had a moderately elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with non-users, even after adjustment for BMI.