Until recently, tetracycline efflux was thought to be the only mechanism of tetracycline resistance. As studies of tetracycline resistance have shifted to bacteria outside the Enterobacteriaceae, two other mechanisms of resistance have been discovered. The first is ribosomal protection, a type of resistance which is found in mycoplasmas, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and may be the most common type of tetracycline resistance in nature. The second is tetracycline modification, which has been found only in two strains of an obligate anaerobe (Bacteroides). Recent studies have also turned up such anomalies as a tetracycline efflux pump which does not confer resistance to tetracycline and a gene near the replication origin of a tetracycline-sensitive Bacillus strain which confers resistance when it is amplified.