The vaccination program against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (2009 H1N1) provided a unique opportunity to determine if immune responses to the 2009 H1N1 vaccine were affected by a recent, prior vaccination against seasonal influenza virus. In the present study, we studied the immune responses to the 2009 H1N1 vaccine in subjects who either received the seasonal influenza virus vaccination within the prior 3 months or did not. Following 2009 H1N1 vaccination, subjects previously given a seasonal influenza virus vaccination exhibited significantly lower antibody responses, as determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay, than subjects who had not received the seasonal influenza virus vaccination. This result is compatible with the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin," by which previous influenza virus vaccination hampers induction of immunity against a new variant. Our finding should be taken into account for future vaccination programs against pandemic influenza virus outbreaks.