Noninvasive assessment of transstenotic pressure gradients in porcine renal artery stenoses by using vastly undersampled phase-contrast MR angiography

Radiology. 2011 Oct;261(1):266-73. doi: 10.1148/radiol.11101175. Epub 2011 Aug 3.


Purpose: To compare noninvasive transstenotic pressure gradient (TSPG) measurements derived from high-spatial- and temporal-resolution four-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) flow measurements with invasive measurements obtained from endovascular pressure wires with digital subtraction angiographic guidance.

Materials and methods: After Animal Care and Use Committee approval, bilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS) was created surgically in 12 swine. Respiratory-gated phase-contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection (VIPR) MR angiography of the renal arteries was performed with a 1.5-T clinical MR system (repetition time, 11.4 msec; echo time [first echo], 3.7 msec; 18,000 projection angles; imaging volume, 260 × 260 × 200 mm; acquired isotropic spatial resolution, 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm; velocity encoding, 150 cm/sec). Velocities measured with phase-contrast VIPR were used to calculate TSPGs by using Navier-Stokes equations. These were compared with endovascular pressure measurements (mean and peak) performed by using fluoroscopic guidance with regression analysis.

Results: In 19 renal arteries with an average stenosis of 62% (range, 0%-87%), there was excellent correlation between the noninvasive TSPG measurement with phase-contrast VIPR and invasive TSPG measurement for mean TSPG (R² = 95.4%) and strong correlation between noninvasive TSPG and invasive TSPG for the peak TSPG measures (R² = 82.6%). The phase-contrast VIPR-derived TSPG measures were slightly lower than the endovascular measurements. In four arteries with severe stenoses and one occlusion (mean, 86%; range, 75%-100%), the residual lumen within the stenosis was too small to determine TSPG with phase-contrast VIPR.

Conclusion: The unenhanced MR angiographic technique with phase-contrast VIPR allows for accurate noninvasive assessment of hemodynamic significance in a porcine model of RAS with highly accurate TSPG measurements.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Radiography
  • Renal Artery Obstruction / diagnostic imaging*
  • Renal Artery Obstruction / physiopathology*
  • Swine