The distant organ effects of acute kidney injury

Kidney Int. 2012 May;81(10):942-948. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.241. Epub 2011 Aug 3.

Abstract

Despite the availability of renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In humans, it is difficult to determine whether AKI is a cause or consequence of excess morbidity. In animal models, however, it is increasingly clear that AKI induces distant organ dysfunction. Identified pathways include inflammatory cascades, apoptosis, the induction of remote oxidative stress, and differential molecular expression. Specifically, growing evidence implicates renal injury as an instigator and multiplier of pulmonary, cardiac, hepatic, and neurologic dysfunction. Accurate identification of these pathways will be critical in developing targeted therapies to improve outcomes in AKI. The purpose of this review is to summarize both clinical and preclinical studies of AKI and its role in distant organ injury.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / complications*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / metabolism
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Brain Diseases / etiology*
  • Brain Diseases / metabolism
  • Brain Diseases / pathology
  • Brain Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Diseases / etiology*
  • Heart Diseases / metabolism
  • Heart Diseases / pathology
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver / physiopathology
  • Liver Diseases / etiology*
  • Liver Diseases / metabolism
  • Liver Diseases / pathology
  • Liver Diseases / physiopathology
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung / physiopathology
  • Lung Diseases / etiology*
  • Lung Diseases / metabolism
  • Lung Diseases / pathology
  • Lung Diseases / physiopathology
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction

Substances

  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Reactive Oxygen Species