α(1B)-Adrenergic receptors mediate many of the actions of the natural catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline. They belong to the seven transmembrane domains G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and exert their actions mainly through activation of Gq proteins and phosphoinositide turnover/calcium signaling. Many hormones and neurotransmitters are capable of inducing α(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization; among them: adrenaline and noradrenaline, phorbol esters, endothelin-I, bradykinin, lysophosphatidic acid, insulin, EGF, PDGF, IGF-I, TGF-β, and estrogens. Key protein kinases for these effects are G protein coupled receptor kinases and protein kinase C. The lipid/protein kinase, phosphoinositide-3 kinase also appears to play a key role, acting upstream of protein kinase C. In addition to the agents employed for cells stimulation, we observed that paracrine/autocrine mediators also participate; these processes include EGF transactivation and sphingosine-1-phosphate production and action. The complex regulation of these receptors unlocks opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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