The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements

Health Mark Q. Jul-Sep 2011;28(3):219-31. doi: 10.1080/07359683.2011.595641.


Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Attitude to Health
  • Female
  • Health Promotion* / methods
  • Health Promotion* / standards
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*