Trihalomethane exposures in indoor swimming pools: a level III fugacity model

Water Res. 2011 Oct 15;45(16):5084-98. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.07.005. Epub 2011 Jul 13.


The potential for generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is high due to the concentrations of chlorine required to maintain adequate disinfection, and the presence of organics introduced by the swimmers. Health Canada set guidelines for trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water; however, no such guideline exists for swimming pool waters. Exposure occurs through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact in swimming pools. In this research, a multimedia model is developed to evaluate exposure concentrations of THMs in the air and water of an indoor swimming pool. THM water concentration data were obtained from 15 indoor swimming pool facilities in Quebec (Canada). A level III fugacity model is used to estimate inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion exposure doses. The results of the proposed model will be useful to perform a human health risk assessment and develop risk management strategies including developing health-based guidelines for disinfection practices and the design of ventilation system for indoor swimming pools.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Humans
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Swimming Pools*
  • Trihalomethanes / analysis
  • Trihalomethanes / toxicity*


  • Trihalomethanes