An inorganic phosphate (P(i))-restricted diet is important for patients with chronic kidney disease and patients on hemodialysis. Phosphate binders are essential for preventing hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcification. The sodium-dependent P(i) (Na/P(i)) transport system is involved in intestinal P(i) absorption and is regulated by several factors. The type II sodium-dependent P(i) transporter Npt2b is expressed in the brush-border membrane in intestinal epithelial cells and transports P(i). In the present study, we analyzed the phenotype of Npt2b(-/-) and hetero(+/-) mice. Npt2b(-/-) mice died in utero soon after implantation, indicating that Npt2b is essential for early embryonic development. At 4 wk of age, Npt2b(+/-) mice showed hypophosphatemia and low urinary P(i) excretion. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were significantly decreased and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels were significantly increased in Npt2b(+/-) mice compared with Npt2b(+/+) mice. Npt2b mRNA levels were reduced to 50% that in Npt2b(+/+) mice. In contrast, renal Npt2a and Npt2c transporter protein levels were significantly increased in Npt2b(+/-) mice. At 20 wk of age, Npt2b(+/-) mice showed hypophosphaturia and reduced Na/P(i) cotransport activity in the distal intestine. Npt2b(+/+) mice with adenine-induced renal failure had hyperphosphatemia and high plasma creatinine levels. Npt2b(+/-) mice treated with adenine had significantly reduced plasma P(i) levels compared with Npt2b(+/+) mice. Intestinal Npt2b protein and Na(+)/P(i) transport activity levels were significantly lower in Npt2b(+/-) mice than in the Npt2b(+/+) mice. The findings of the present studies suggest that Npt2b is an important target for the prevention of hyperphosphatemia.