Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite hormone that acts centrally to control feeding behavior. The 5' and exon 2 regions of NPY2R, one of five NPY receptor genes, have been weakly and inconsistently implicated with obesity. With the ATG start site of the gene at the beginning of exon 2, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across intron 1 may show stronger associations with obesity than expected. Two 5' SNPs, three intron 1 SNPs, and one synonymous exon 2 SNP were genotyped on 2,985 white Utah subjects. Previously associated FTO, NPY, NPY1R, MC4R, PPARGC1A, OR7D4, and four NPFFR2 SNPs were also genotyped and related to BMI. One NPY2R 5' SNP (rs12649641, P = 0.008), an exon 2 SNP (rs2880415, P = 0.009), and an intron 1 SNP (rs17376826, P = 7 × 10(-6)) were each significantly associated with BMI. All three SNPs, plus FTO (rs9939609, P = 1.5 × 10(-6)) and two NPFFR2 SNPs (rs4129733, P = 3.7 × 10(-13) and rs11940196, 4.2 × 10(-10)) remained significant in a multiple regression additive model. Diplotypes using the estimated haplotypes of NPY2R, NPFFR2, and MC4R were significantly associated with BMI (P = 1.0 × 10(-10), 3.2 × 10(-8), and 1.1 × 10(-4), respectively). Haplotypes of NPY2R, NPFFR2, and MC4R, plus the FTO SNP, explained 9.6% of the BMI variance. SNP effect sizes per allele for the four genes ranged from 0.8 to 3.5 kg/m(2). We conclude that haplotypes containing the rs17376826 SNP in intron 1 of NPY2R have strong associations with BMI, some NPFFR2 haplotypes are strongly protective against or increase risk of obesity, and both NPY2R and NPFFR2 play important roles in obesity predisposition independent of FTO and MC4R.