Dysgeusia following consumption of pine nuts: more than 3000 cases in France

Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Aug;49(7):668-70. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2011.595721. Epub 2011 Aug 8.


Introduction: In March 2008, French poison centres (PCs) recorded the first calls reporting persistent bitterness following the ingestion of pine nuts.

Methods: The French toxic exposure surveillance system (French-Tess) was searched and a descriptive analysis of cases was performed on data recorded from 13 March 2008 to 31 January 2010.

Results: Some 3111 cases of bitterness were reported to PCs. The number of cases rose sharply from May 2009 to reach a peak in August 2009 with 697 cases. The median time to onset of dysgeusia was 24 hours and it lasted less than 14 days in 95% of cases. Raw as well as cooked or processed pine nuts were implicated.

Discussion: The delayed onset and persistence of dysgeusia suggest that the toxin may act via an unknown toxic mechanism on the receptor. The aetiological agent could be an unidentified toxin present in some varieties of non-edible pine nuts.

Conclusion: The high incidence of the event and the lack of understanding of the nature of the toxin and its pathophysiological mechanism require continued monitoring of poison cases, botanical and biochemical analysis, and experimental studies.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dysgeusia / epidemiology
  • Dysgeusia / etiology*
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Nuts / adverse effects*
  • Pinus / adverse effects*
  • Poison Control Centers / statistics & numerical data
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / drug effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Taste Buds / drug effects
  • Time Factors


  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled