Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is associated with uraemic bone disease, vascular calcification, reduced quality of life and reduced survival. This study evaluated the efficacy of parathyroidectomy (PTX) with autotransplantation in improving short-term and long-term outcomes. Dialysis patients who underwent PTX showed significantly more favourable biochemical parameters after PTX. These changes were accompanied by a lower coronary artery calcification score, reduced thickness of the intimae media and comparable bone mineral density measures compared with control dialysis patients who did not undergo PTX. Despite the risk of a substantially lower intact parathyroid hormone level postoperatively that might lead to adynamic bone disease, none of the patients reported clinical signs of this disease, such as bone pain or fractures. In conclusion, PTX with autotransplantation led to improvement of CKD-MBD so may be considered in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism that is resistant to treatment with vitamin D analogues and calcimimetics.