Pseudallescheria boydii is a rare cause of central nervous system infection characteristically presenting as a neutrophilic meningitis or multiple brain abscesses. Factors predisposing to central nervous system infection with this fungus include immunosuppression and near drowning. The organism is infrequently cultured from fluid obtained by lumbar puncture, delaying clinical recognition and appropriate antifungal therapy. All untreated patients with P boydii infection of the central nervous system died. We describe a patient who developed a persistent neutrophilic meningitis with focal neurologic deficits due to P boydii 6 months after a freshwater aspiration pneumonia. We also review the characteristic clinical and pathologic features of previously reported cases and emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment in the management of this frequently intractable disease.