Regulating Rap small G-proteins in time and space

Trends Cell Biol. 2011 Oct;21(10):615-23. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Aug 4.


Signaling by the small G-protein Rap is under tight regulation by its GEFs and GAPs. These are multi-domain proteins that are themselves controlled by distinct upstream pathways, and thus couple different extra- and intracellular cues to Rap. The individual RapGEFs and RapGAPs are, in addition, targeted to specific cellular locations by numerous anchoring mechanisms and, consequently, may control different pools of Rap. Here, we review the various activating signals and targeting mechanisms of these proteins and discuss their contribution to the spatiotemporal regulation and biological functions of the Rap proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cyclic AMP / chemistry
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / chemistry
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / metabolism*
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / chemistry
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism*
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism


  • GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rap GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins