A prospective survey of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and clonidine after total hip replacement: a pre- and postchange comparison with bupivacaine and hydromorphone in 1,000 patients

Anesth Analg. 2011 Nov;113(5):1213-7. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318228fc8b. Epub 2011 Aug 4.


Background and objectives: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with bupivacaine and hydromorphone provides high quality analgesia after orthopedic surgery but is associated with a frequent incidence of opioid-related side effects (15%-30%). Epidural clonidine has a different side effect profile, but there are no large surveys documenting its use. We performed this prospective survey to evaluate analgesia and the side effect profile in total hip replacement patients before and after a systematic change from PCEA with bupivacaine/hydromorphone to bupivacaine/clonidine.

Methods: Five hundred consecutive patients received PCEA with 0.06% bupivacaine and hydromorphone (10 mcg/mL) as a previously described prechange control group. The standard analgesic regimen was then systematically changed to 0.06% bupivacaine and clonidine (1 mcg/mL) without changing the PCEA settings or other aspects of perioperative care, and 500 consecutive patients were included as a postchange group. All data were prospectively entered and then abstracted from the electronic medical record. Data collection included daily verbal pain scores (VPS), pruritus, nausea, hypotension, need for IV fluid boluses, sedation, and respiratory depression. An online survey to measure staff satisfaction with the changeover was sent to all participating surgeons, anesthesiologists, physical therapists, and physician's assistants.

Results: Patient characteristics were similar between groups. Most patients received central neuraxial anesthesia (99%). The clonidine group had lower VPS at rest (2.3 vs 3.7, P<0.001 with 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference of 1.4 [1.1, 1.7]) on POD0. The incidence of nausea was 10%-11% for clonidine and 13%-15% for hydromorphone. The incidence of pruritus was less with clonidine (1 vs 10%, P<0.01 with 95% CI of difference of 9% [6, 12]). However, the incidence of hypotension (20 vs 11%, P<0.001 with 95% CI of differences 9% [5, 14]) and IV fluid boluses was more frequent with clonidine (36 vs 19%, P<0.001 with 95% CI of differences of 16 [11, 12]). Sixty-five percent of staff completed the online survey, and 70% considered clonidine worse than hydromorphone.

Conclusion: The systematic changeover from epidural hydromorphone to clonidine produced mixed results without obvious superiority. The VPS at rest was reduced only on postoperative day 0; pruritus was reduced, but hypotension was increased. On the basis of medical staff preference, we discontinued the systematic change and returned to our previous standard solution of bupivacaine and hydromorphone for PCEA after total hip replacement.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / adverse effects
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use*
  • Aged
  • Analgesia, Epidural / adverse effects
  • Analgesia, Epidural / methods*
  • Analgesia, Patient-Controlled / adverse effects
  • Analgesia, Patient-Controlled / methods*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage
  • Anesthetics, Local / adverse effects
  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use*
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip*
  • Bupivacaine / administration & dosage
  • Bupivacaine / adverse effects
  • Bupivacaine / therapeutic use*
  • Clonidine / administration & dosage
  • Clonidine / adverse effects
  • Clonidine / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydromorphone / administration & dosage
  • Hydromorphone / adverse effects
  • Hydromorphone / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement / drug effects
  • Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Clonidine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Bupivacaine