Background: Duplication of the vas deferens is the identification of a second vas deferens within the spermatic cord; it is a rarely reported congenital anomaly. Duplicate vas deferens should not be confused with double vas deferens that describes ipsilateral renal agenesis with a blind ureter ending in the ejaculatory system.
Data sources: We present a case of duplicated vas deferens, and a PubMed Medline (National Library of Medicine) search was performed using the terms "[duplicated OR double]" and "vas deferens". Nineteen papers for a total of twenty-two cases (including ours) were identified.
Conclusions: Duplication of vas deferens is a rare finding; it is likely under-reported and underrecognized. Failure to recognize this variation can result in injury to the vas deferens or an ineffective vasectomy. Following identification of a suspected duplicated vas deferens, the structure should be tracked from the internal ring down to the epididymis and intra-operative Doppler should be performed. Post-operatively, renal and bladder imaging can be considered though there have been no reported cases of non-testicular genito-urinary anomalies associated with duplicated vas deferens.