Effectiveness of medical nutrition treatment delivered by dietitians on glycaemic outcomes and lipid profiles of Arab, Omani patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabet Med. 2012 Feb;29(2):236-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03405.x.

Abstract

Aims: In this randomized controlled trial we evaluated the effectiveness of medical nutritional therapy on Arab patients with Type 2 diabetes in Oman delivered by a dietitian.

Methods: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 170) were randomly assigned to a group receiving usual nutritional care (n = 85) or a group receiving practice guidelines nutritional care (n = 85). Anthropometric (weight, height, BMI and waist circumference) and biochemical (fasting blood glucose, HbA1c ) variables were measured at baseline and after each appointment. Patients were given 1-3 appointments with a dietitian over 6 months.

Results: Those in the group receiving practice guidelines nutritional care (n = 85) had significant changes in HbA(1c) (-0.8%, P = 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (-1.3 mmol\l, P = 0.003) and weight (-5.1 kg, P = 0.05), whereas the patients in the usual nutritional care group (n = 85) had no significant improvements in either HbA(1c) (-0.4%, P = 0.248) or fasting plasma glucose (-0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.638) during the same period. We also found a significant difference between the group receiving practice guidelines nutritional care and the usual nutritional care group, respectively, in waist circumference (96.9 ± 7.9 vs. 100.0 ± 8.7 cm, P = 0.019), triglycerides levels (1.42 ± 0.58 vs. 1.98 ± 0.96 mmol\l, P = 0.001), cholesterol levels (5.1 ± 1.0 vs. 5.5 ± 0.9 mmol/l, P = 0.009) and LDL cholesterol levels (3.58 ± 0.98 vs. 3.89 ± 0.98 mmol/l, P = 0.046).

Conclusions: Medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians to Arab patients with Type 2 diabetes in Oman resulted in significant improvements in anthropometric and biochemical outcomes in both the usual nutritional care group and the group receiving practice guidelines nutritional care. Subjects with Type 2 diabetes tended to do better with practice guidelines nutritional care than with usual nutritional care. Ongoing medical counselling in nutrition by a trained dietitian is important for better long-term metabolic control.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arabs*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Counseling / methods*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipids
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oman / epidemiology
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Waist Circumference
  • Weight Loss*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids